What is Bentonite Clay? Uses & Benefits-Internal, Weight Loss, Skin, Ponds + More

Bentonite clay uses have been gaining popularity for years now. Did you know you can use Bentonite clay internally for detox cleansing,  weight loss, skin, for making body wraps, in ponds, yeast infection, thyroid and for other health benefits?

Bentonite clay uses range from internal to external, meaning that you can apply the clay for internal body benefits as well as for external skin benefits. The clay has been classified as a healing clay, although some people call it medicinal. Below, you will learn that various therapies, treatments and benefits from the uses of Bentonite clay. From what is Bentonite clay is to the uses of both sodium and calcium Bentonite clay , we reveal all the benefits one can get by applying this potent clay in their day to day regimens.

What is Bentonite Clay-Structure, Composition & Ingredients?

What is bentonite clay & how it is formed

Bentonite clay is a type of clay formed when volcanic ash decomposes.  This type of clay has a high ability to absorb water in large amounts as well as expand by greater volumes. It is mined from the earth and consists of volcanic ash that has aged and withered with water being present.

More precisely, Bentonite clay forms when volcanic glass is altered to clay minerals.

According to Wikipedia’s definition of Bentonite clay, Bentonite is “an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate, essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. The absorbent clay was given the name bentonite by Wilbur C. Knight in 1898…”

Bentonite clay structure & properties

Bentonite clay is composed of crystalline clay minerals that are of the smectite group. These minerals are hydrous aluminum silicates and contain magnesium, iron, calcium, or even sodium. [1]

Properties of bentonite clay include the following;

Viscosity of aqueous suspensions

Upon dispersion in water, bentonite clay forms colloidal suspensions that are highly stable. These suspensions do not only have high viscosity but they are also thixotropic, that is, the clay can become less viscous once moved and that allow for it to be spreadable.

In other words, as much as the clay is highly viscous, it becomes less viscous once some pressure is applied to it. This is the property that explains why bentonite clay is commonly used in drilling slurries.

Absorption of water and ability to swell

As already mentioned, bentonite clay has the ability to absorb water and it is after absorbing this water that it becomes swollen.  Nevertheless, not all types of bentonite clay have the ability to absorb water. This is because, the capacity to absorb water and swell depends on its solvating and hydrophilic power as well as exchangeable ions type contained in the clay.

Binding property

This is the property responsible for use of bentonite clay in production of green molding sand.  Since bentonite clay is found to have a suitable level of moisture content, it is used as a connective tissue. This is usually in covering quarts sand grains.

Waterproofing and colloidal properties

After bentonite absorbs water, it forms a strong hydrostatic and pressure resistant semisolid gel. This is viewed as a montmorillonite platelet which is negatively charged.  Montmorillonite is a clay mineral.

The negative charges in the clay repel against each other and this is how the spaces that let water through are created. As the water is let through, the bentonite clay swells forming a stable shell around the platelet. Here, the shell gets saturated after sometime and it starts repelling water despite the level of pressure. This explains why ponds and docks use bentonite clay to seal soil infiltrations. This property also shows why bentonite clay is used to line landfills base. [2]

Bentonite clay chemical composition

Bentonite clay has Sodium as the main component.  Sodium montmorillonite is a major item when discussing bentonite clay composition since it contains minerals such as iron, aluminum, and magnesium; all of which make sodium bentonite.


There are several minerals that make up bentonite clay. They include; magnesium, calcium, copper, sodium, silica, and iron. It is these minerals that give bentonite clay its numerous healing powers.

Different types of bentonite clay

There are several types of bentonite clay based on their composition. They include; sodium bentonite, calcium bentonite, potassium bentonite, and aluminum bentonite. However, the most common types are sodium and calcium bentonite as discussed below;

Sodium Bentonite

This is the type of bentonite clay that contains very high levels of sodium. This type of clay absorbs water and swells up to fifteen times its volume. Its swelling nature explains why it is preferred as a sealant in industries.

Calcium bentonite

This type of bentonite is also referred to as calcium montmorillonite. It is the rarest of smectite and contains very high levels of calcium. A natural Calcium Bentonite which is green clay has super absorption and adsorption powers and is therefore considered the healing and curative type of clay.

Aluminum Bentonite clay

This is the other type, and as the name suggests, it contains more of aluminum than other minerals in its lattice.

How to use Bentonite Clay Internally-Ingesting & Eating Benefits

Is there Food Grade Edible Bentonite Clay?

Yes, there is food grade edible bentonite clay which is handled more carefully and is usually cleaner than industrial grade bentonite clay.

Benefits of Eating/Ingesting/Drinking Bentonite-Hydrated or Liquid

This food grade bentonite clay when ingested or taken taken in liquid for has several benefits including but not limited to; detoxification, elimination of food allergies and food poisoning, and cleansing of the colony.

Some clay enthusiasts recommend that you drink Bentonite clay every day in order to maintain good health. This is one of the best ways to get the hydrated Bentonite clay benefits. Liquefied clay is generally good and will even carry health gains for your teeth and skin despite being used or consumed internally.

AboutClay gives a piece of advice about hydrated or liquid Bentonite clay benefits, that “In a world where dietary choices are poor, environmental pollution is heavy, stress levels are high, and exercise is often a last priority, internal cleansing is more important than ever for optimum health.” They go ahead to explain that having the clay in your system is one of the best ways to do the cleansing. So, make it a point to drink a small portion of it everyday.

Bentonite clay smoothie for internal use

When you wish to give your kids bentonite clay internally, it is best consumed as a smoothie. Into your normal smoothie preparation for your kids, add 2 teaspoons of bentonite clay once in a day. This limits the side effects your child is likely to get from use of bentonite clay.

Other Recipes on how to use bentonite clay internally

Clay water recipe


  • 1 teaspoon Bentonite clay
  • 8 ounces water


  1. Make a mixture of the 8 ounces of water with the bentonite clay. You can then drink the mixture immediately or wait to drink the water above the clay which settles at the bottom after some time.

Adding clay into shakes

Just like in smoothies, you can add about a teaspoon of bentonite clay into shakes then give to your child or drink it yourself. That way, bentonite clay benefits will still be realized.

What is the best bentonite clay for internal use?

The best bentonite clay for internal consumption is Redmond clay. This is the type of clay which is very rich in both sodium and calcium.

Bentonite Clay Weight Loss Benefits & Body Wrap Recipe

How does it work for weight loss?

When you consume bentonite clay before your meals, probably with some juice, it leaves feeling full. This as a result makes you less hungry and consequently reduces the amount of food you consume. In fact, weight loss is considered one of the side effects of consuming bentonite clay.

What are the advantages of using this weight loss technique

This is one of the inexpensive methods used for weight loss. Besides, using bentonite clay for weight loss comes with fewer side effects when used correctly. You also derive other benefits of clay to your body even when your main purpose is to lose weight.

How to use-Recipes for Body Wraps

You can also make body wraps at home using bentonite clay

Bentonite Clay Body Wrap for Weight Loss
Body wrap with bentonite clay


  • 1 cup bentonite clay powder
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 cup diluted apple cider vinegar
  • 2 drops essential oil


  1. Mix the above ingredients in a plastic bowl
  2. Add water or the powder until you achieve the desirable thickness

You can add other ingredients to your body wraps as long as they do not have negative effects on how well bentonite clay works. For instance you can add ginger, or Epsom sea salt.


Many people have reviewed the excellent results of using bentonite clay for weight loss. Among them are some celebrities below;

Zoe Kravitz

Kravitz, a great actress, explains that she used bentonite clay for weight loss and it worked. As much as it may not taste so good, the results are pleasing. [3]

Salma Hayek also confirms that bentonite clay worked for her slimming and detoxification. In the same way, you should try bentonite clay as it would work for you too.

Benefits of Bentonite Clay for Skin

Benefits of Bentonite Clay for Skin
Bentonite clay mask for skin allergies,detox and soothing

Is Bentonite clay good for skin? Can you use Bentonite clay mask on the face? What will be the effect? Calcium Bentonite clay is commonly used as a face mask to remove blemish marks and to treat the skin of many other problems.

It is for a good reason that Bentonite clay benefits are included in most of the skin care recipes. The skin suffers a lot of strain from toxins and other physical problems, making it age fast. However, if you want to reduce the aging effects caused by environmental agents, apply this clay on your skin. In a nutshell, here are the benefits of Bentonite clay for skin:

  • When applied to the skin, the mud helps get rid of skin allergies that may cause itchiness and sometimes blemishes
  • Use Bentonite clay for skin detox. It slows down aging of the skin by removing age accelerating toxins.
  • The hydrated Bentonite clay is applied on the skin for external uses. It soothes and heals insect bites, bee stings, achy joints, acne, cuts and bruises. If you have boils and rashes, apply a thick layer of this clay on your skin to heal them fast.

Sodium Bentonite Clay for Ponds/Dams Sealing

United states Environmental Protection Agency has found it necessary to use Sodium Bentonite clay is for sealing dams and Ponds. I t passed a ruling that waste disposal sites as well as landfills must all be sealed so as to avoid leaching of hazardous chemicals.

Being environmentally friendly and a great sealant, sodium bentonite has been suggested for this task. The reason behind this, as earlier discussed, is the ability of Sodium Bentonite to swell up to fifteen to eighteen times its normal volume. This swelling is maintained in the entire life of sodium bentonite.

Water usually seeps in the soil forming the pond sides. Sodium bentonite after swelling becomes very powerful and strongly repels water. This way, it is said to have formed an impermeable barrier between the soil and water.

Bentonite Clay for Candida/Yeast Infection

Candida is a yeast infection that mostly attacks women. Among the natural remedies for candida is use of bentonite.  However, you must understand that bentonite does not directly cure candida but rather, it reduces the side effects of this yeast infection.

Bentonite clay aids in getting rid of candida by removal of toxins. Also referred to as montmorillonite clay, Bentonite clay changes its electrical charge after it mixes with water. This allows it to bind and remove heavy metals which form part of the toxins. This reduces the symptoms that come as a result of the yeast reaction.

Bentonite clay for eyes

If you are looking for a natural remedy to solve your eye strain, you need to consider bentonite clay.  This will be done with your eyes closed to avoid unnecessary side effects since bentonite is dangerous when it gets inside your eyes. This clay heals your eyes by getting rid of toxins that may be causing the problem.

In accordance with In The Gloss, puffy under-eye bags can be reduced using bentonite clay. You are required to apply the clay paste around the puffy area (eyelid closed) and leave it there for about twenty minutes before rinsing it off. Bentonite clay reduces the puffiness by absorbing the excess fluids and as such reducing any inflammation. Should you experience irritations, you are advised pour liquid clay on a cotton ball and apply it on that particular area.

Bentonite clay thyroid

Thyroid is one of the endocrine glands that are very large. It affects how other body organs work and therefore, when it experiences any defects, you are likely to experience a lot of problems. Good news is, should your thyroids have issues; you should try bentonite clay.

Bentonite clay absorbs toxins and for this reason, it can be applied around the neck area where the thyroid ids located so that it pulls out any toxins. Alternatively, you can take a teaspoon of bentonite clay in water each day.

Bentonite clay parasite cleanse

Upon ingestion, bentonite clay portrays several properties that make it effective in getting rid of any parasites that have accumulated in your body as it goes through the intestinal tract. When ingested, clay absorbs water from the digestive system and its particles swell forming a porous large mass.

The indigestible mass keeps on moving down the intestinal tract. Since it has absorbed water to saturation, it acquires a negative charge which explains its ability to attract any parasites that are in your body system. The clay mass drags the parasites with it until the point it leaves the body. [4]

Some parasites are found on the human skin and they as well can be cleansed using bentonite clay. For instance, you may consider apply bentonite clay on the skin surface to get rid of such parasites. You can also have a bentonite clay bath.

Bentonite Clay for Constipation, Diarrhea, ulcerative colitis & IBS

Bentonite clay can be used for other various treatments including the following;


When in used in small amounts, bentonite clay can be used to treat constipation. When you wish to treat constipation using this clay, you are advised to use it alongside other stool softening agents such as flax seed and chia.

However, you must be cautious since when used in large amounts, bentonite clay may worsen the state of the constipation. This occurs when bentonite clay taken internally draws so much water from your digestive system.

Diarrhea- Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis refers to inflammation of the bowel where the innermost lining of your large intestine is highly affected. Bentonite clay can be used to treat both this inflammatory bowel disease and diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis leads to diarrhea in most cases.

Just like in the case of constipation, you are required to use bentonite clay in small amounts in combination with flaxseed, or even psyllium.  Bentonite clay helps in getting rid of impurities such as toxins that have interfered with the way your digestive system works leading to diarrhea.

A study done by Arizona State University showed that “…bentonite clay was found to be highly effective at killing MRSA as well as Salmonella, E.Coli and others.”

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

When you have this syndrome, it basically means you have a serious issue with making bowel movements.  This goes back to what exactly in your system is foreign and is as such causing unusual behavior of your bowel movements.

Mostly, all you will need to do is to detox so that you clear your digestive system of all available toxins allowing for proper and normal functioning of your intestinal tract.

Bentonite Clay and apple cider vinegar ulcerative colitis Recipe

For more effective results, you will need 1 teaspoon bentonite clay, and an equal amount of apple cider vinegar and some water.


  1. Into a bowl, add the bentonite clay and apple cider vinegar then add a reasonable amount of water say half a cup
  2. Once you have made an even solution, drink the mixture and allow it to work before taking the next dose, say, after week
  3. If you start experiencing side effects, discontinue use of this solution and visit your doctor

Bentonite clay acid reflux

Heartburns and acid reflux can be relieved using bentonite clay. It works by balancing your body Ph. It is an alkaline substance and this makes it easy to neutralize the high acid levels of your system. However, you must follow the guidelines below to avoid side effects that could come with intake of bentonite clay.


  1. Make a mixture of ½ teaspoon of bentonite clay with half cup of water
  2. Stir until an even solution is created
  3. You are required to drink this solution at least once in a day. You should take it one hour before any other prescriptions
  4. Remember to drink a lot of water throughout the day. By the end of the day, you will realize that the acid reflux has reduced.

To ensure the clay does not absorb too much water from your gut when you drink the solution, you are advised to prepare the solution and allow it to stay overnight before you can drink it. This long period is meant to let the bentonite absorb water to saturation giving it no room for water absorption when it gets to your gut.

Bentonite clay foundation waterproofing

Bentonite waterproofing works by creating a barrier between the foundation and the soil around it.  Like all other types of clay, bentonite clay absorbs moisture around it. When the clay particles absorb moisture to saturation, the clay expands and this way, it covers the gaps in the foundation allowing no water to go through.

Compared to other waterproofing methods, bentonite clay is less expensive and is best when applied in a new construction. You can either spray the clay on the foundation or simply apply the clay in thin sheets.  This is done for new constructions.

For an already existing foundation, you will need to excavate it first before applying the bentonite sheets. Even that, some contractors has a way of injecting liquid bentonite mud into the soil that surrounds your foundation.

Bentonite Clay Soap Benefits, Uses & Recipe

Bentonite clay soaps work very well in getting rid of toxins from your skin. This clay is therefore great for people with oily skin.


  • 9oz coconut oil
  • 4 teaspoons bentonite clay
  • 9oz olive oil
  • 3oz castor oil
  • 50z water
  • 9oz palm oil
  • 5oz Lye


  1. Place the water in a bowl then add to it the clay,
  2. Add the Lye then the oils
  3. You can vary the ingredients above as long as the ratios are maintained. You can add an essential oil too

Bentonite Clay Deodorant Recipe

There are so many deodorants in your nearby store but you may realize they only do away with the smell of sweat but not the sweat itself. If you wish to do away with not only the sweat smell but the sweat as well, you should try bentonite clay deodorant since it has properties allowing it to absorb excessive sweat.


  • A plastic tablespoon and jar (Remember you are not supposed to use anything metallic as it is likely to react with the clay. Negative ions in bentonite clay absorb substances making up metallic materials).
  • 2 tablespoons of bentonite clay
  • 6 tablespoons liquid coconut oil
  • 4 tablespoons of arrowroot powder
  • 4 tablespoons of baking soda


  1. Into your jar, pour all the powder and the bentonite clay
  2. Add the coconut oil as your stir using a plastic rod. In case you had to heat your coconut oil to have it liquid, give it time to cool before proceeding
  3. Add baking soda if it has never reacted with your body before. If you have had a bad experience with it in the past, it is necessary that you live it out
  4. After making a good paste using all the ingredients, you can go ahead and use it
  5. As long as you store the deodorant properly, you can use it for up to four to six months. What is important is for you to ensure it does not come into contact with any metallic materials.

Bentonite clay for cancer

Bentonite clay is used in cancer therapy. This clay possesses internal cleansing properties that make it a very powerful cleanser. When this clay is mixed with water, an electromagnetic field that attracts toxic substances from the body is created.

In the case of cancer therapy, bentonite clay is used in getting rid of side effects that come with use of cancer drugs as well as secondary illnesses that come with cancer. Bentonite clay for instance relieves you of nausea, food allergies, spastic colitis, or any viral infections.  Generally, bentonite clay boosts your immune system by clearing all the toxins in your body.

Bentonite clay for boils

Bentonite clay aids in treatment of a boil by drawing the material that is infected in the boil (the pus). Carolyn Dean, MD, explains that bentonite clay is an effective treatment for boils. She advises that you should purchase powdered clay from your nearby food store.

Carolyn gives a guide and says that you are required to make a mixture of powdered clay and boiled or purified water to make a good paste. You are then required to apply the paste on your boil. Dean says that the clay heals the boiled by drawing away the pain, inflammation, and heat.

How to use bentonite clay tattoo removal

You can remove tattoos naturally, all thanks to bentonite clay. More precisely, calcium bentonite clay has over time now been used in removal of tattoos. This clay contains negatively charged ions while most substances such as tattoo ink have a positive charge in their ions.

Bentonite clay removes tattoo ink in a two-step process. First of all, it attracts the positively charged tattoo ink while holding it through the process of adsorption. Secondly, it draws ink molecules into the clay molecules aided by its absorption property.


  1. Make a clay paste using clay powder and water in the ratio of 1:3 respectively. This way, your clay becomes hydrated.
  2. Apply this paste on the tattoo you intend to remove. Allow the clay to harden as it absorbs the tattoo ink. This could take about 1 hour not unless the clay has a room to harden further.
  3. Without rubbing the area, wash it by simply sweeping over it using your hand. Use a soft towel to dry the area.
  4. You are to repeat this procedure four times a day. The fourth time should be leaving the clay on that area over night. For the best results, do this for about three months. You are also advised to add nothing more to the mixture as it may interfere with the working of the clay.

Use & Benefits of bentonite clay for Autism in kids & Babies

Center for Disease Control and Prevention have states that, an approximate of 1 for every 68 children in the United States has autism. Bentonite clay has proved to work in treatment of autism.[5] Experts explain that detoxifying the body of such children so as to cleanse their systems aids in treatment.

Author of Using Energy to Heal, Wendell Hoffman, explains that bentonite clay bath draws toxic chemicals and other impurities out of the body. Further, author of Breakthroughs in Autism (Dr. Miriam) confirms that clay baths is a faster way of removing metals from the body. This is explained by t he strong negative ions in bentonite clay. You are advised to use calcium bentonite clay for autism in kids.[6]


Benefits & Uses of Bentonite clay for Dogs & Cats

How to use for dogs

Bentonite clay can be used for dogs due to his excellent healing abilities by drawing away of toxins from the body. You can use clay for your dog to treat allergies, constipation, gas, bloating, and you can also give your dog the clay dog to help it recover from diarrhea and vomiting.

bentonite clay uses dogs cats

This clay can be given to the dog orally in the case of removal of toxins and it can also be used externally (poultice). In this case, you are advised to make a mixture of water and clay then apply the clay on the affected skin of the dog. Once the clay dries, you are required to wash it off. Ensure you do not use any metallic substances. Observe your do too so that it stays away from metals.

When you wish to give the dog the clay for internal consumption, add ½ a teaspoon of bentonite clay to the dog’s water or food; but mostly water. Since the clay has strong absorbent properties, ensure your dog can access fresh water after giving it this clay.[7]

Bentonite clay for kitty litter clumping

Bentonite clay is used for kitty litter clumping due to its liquid absorption abilities. When the kitty litter becomes wet, this clay enables it to clump.[8] Most cat litters in the United States are made of bentonite clay.

Bentonite clay for toenail fungus

Bentonite clay is very effective in treating all forms of fungal infections. For toe nail fungal infections, you can apply a mixture of this clay and water probably twice a day.

Is bentonite clay for arthritis

A mixture of bentonite clay and water when consumed internally goes through the body drawing all the toxins through an ionic exchange process. Calcium bentonite clay is the one that is especially used in the case of arthritis.

Arthritis is associated with an allergic component. The clay helps in treating arthritis by eliminating the allergens from your body. This therefore does away with the inflammation that comes with arthritis. Apart from that, bentonite clay stimulates blood circulation and as such oxygen is well distributed in the body organs. The joints on getting blood rich in oxygen work well in repair and rejuvenation cells. [9]

Bentonite clay enema uses

Enema is a process of injecting a gas or liquid into the rectum to let out its contents. When used with enema water, bentonite clay water enhances absorption. Besides, it mobilizes toxins from the walls of your bowel.

Bentonite clay for cellulite

Cellulite refers to lumps and bumps appearing underneath your skin. Bentonite clay can be used to eradicate toxins from the skin. Apply a mixture of clay and apple cider vinegar on the skin that has the cellulite and leave it to dry. When it is completely dry, it gets the skin tightened and as such pulls out toxins and dirt from the pores of your skin.


Does bentonite clay expire

How long does bentonite clay last?

When stored correctly, dry bentonite clay can last for a life time. In other words, as long as you do not let your clay come into contact with metals or water, you can use it for as long as you want. Even that, packaged clays will have an expiry date written on them and in that case, you will need to use them within the stated period.

How to store bentonite clay

In case of liquid clay, you should store it in a ceramic glass or plastic container that is air tight. You should neither use a metallic container nor a container with a metallic lid.  You may also refrigerate liquid clay. Dry clay should be stored in air tight plastic containers and must be kept away from chemicals, or anything that has a strong odor.

What is the density of bentonite clay

Bentonite clay has a density of 0.593grams for every cubic centimeter. This in terms of ounces is 0.343 ounces for every inch cubed.

Is Bentonite Clay Safe?

Yes. Bentonite clay is safe if used correctly and in the right amounts. Apart from that, this clay must be stored away from any metallic items that would add undesirable ingredients to it. Otherwise, when consumed in its right condition, bentonite clay is safe.

Does bentonite clay work for drug test?

Yes, bentonite clay has the ability to absorb impurities, toxins and heavy metals. You can therefore use it comfortably to pass a drug test.

What is the difference between kaolin and bentonite clay

Kaolin is mineral rich and absorbent clay just like bentonite clay. The difference between the two is that bentonite clay has the ability to swell more when compared to kaolin. In fact Kaolin is n ingredient in some bentonite clay types.

Does bentonite clay make you poop?

Yes. Bentonite clay increases bulk into your stool. This explains why, after using bentonite clay, you may find yourself pooping quite often. Remember, bentonite clay after cleansing your body has to get the unwanted materials from your body.

Bentonite clay chelation-is it a chelating agent

Chelating refers to removing heavy metals from the body. Bentonite clay baths removes heavy metals from the body due to its high negative ionic charge.

Does bentonite clay contain lead?

Yes. Since it is collected from the earth, bentonite clay contains some traces of lead but the traces are too few to worry you. In other words, the amount of clay in bentonite cannot lead to any harm.

Can you use bentonite clay for colon cleanse?

Yes. You can use bentonite clay on its own or with other ingredients like psyllium to cleanse your colon.The detoxification property of the clay explains its ability to clean up the colon.

More on Clay-Bentonite

Montmorillonite Clay

Aztec Healing Clay

Multani Mitti (Fuller’s Earth) Clay

Rhassoul (Red Morrocan, Ghassoul) Clay

Kaolin (China, White Cosmetic, Kaolinite) Clay

Other Clays-French Green Clay & Dead Sea Mud





[3] http://www.medicaldaily.com/drinking-clay-lose-20-pounds-zoe-kravitz-does-cleanse-play-anorexic-road-within-289224


[5] https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-real-reasons-autism-rates-are-up-in-the-u-s/

[6] https://www.naturalnews.com/026508_clay_autism_environment.html

[7] http://www.dogsnaturallymagazine.com/bentonite-clay-detox/

[8] http://www.petmd.com/cat/care/evr_ct_what_is_in_cat_litter

[9] https://www.earthsnaturalclay.com/blogs/blog/87073607-is-bentonite-clay-a-natural-remedy-for-arthritis


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